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Fluid Loss

In high- permeability rock, selection of a proper treatment fluid is the most effective means of controlling fluid loss. In most cases, the use of a particulate-type fluid-loss additive can improve the fluid loss to the formation; however, these types of additives can damage fracture conductivity during production.

Crosslinked fluids are far superior to linear gel systems for reducing fluid loss in high- permeability formations. Comparison of fluid loss using crosslinked gels shows that the borate-crosslinked fluids are particularly more efficient than any of the organometallic systems tested. The high fluid-loss efficiency of the borate fluids, plus the advantages of their reversible crosslink and their easy cleanup, has made them the preferred choice for crosslinked gels. Based on these test results and on field results, borate-crosslinked fluids are highly recommended in high-permeability wells where HEC performs poorly.

Viscous fluid invasion predominantly controls fluid loss in high-permeability formations more so than in conventional fracturing in low-permeability formations. As a result of this fluid-loss behavior, the performance of linear gels and crosslinked gels is very different.

Linear HEC Fluids

Guar-Based Linear Gels