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Tamarind Gum Derivatives

In recent years chemical derivation methods have been deployed to enhance the characteristics of this intractable and inexpensive polysaccharides to achieve non-Newtonian pseudo-plastic behaviour, relatively high viscosity, cold-water solubility, solution stability and clarity as compared with unmodified TKP.

Tamarind gum derivatives :-

Carboxymethyl derivitized TKP is reported to have better stability against the microbial degradation and improved solubility.
Acetyl derivatives of TKP are prepared with acetic anhydride under various conditions, which in presence of proper solvents give flexible, strong, glossy, transparent films which adhere to metallic, glass and wooden surfaces. They may also be used as thermoplastic resins on account of their wide melting range.
Hydroxyalkyl derivatives of TKP (ex. Hydroxypropyl TKP & Hydroxyethyl TKP) exhibit improved rheological properties including better cross link-ability.
TKP-AN and TKP - AA (Acrylonitrile TKP & Acryamide TKP) :- Using ceric ammonium nitrate as initiator in water base for Graft Polymerizing of acrylonitrile on TKP results in TKP-AN derivative, which more stable in heat as compared to TKP. In same way using cerric ammonium nitrate-nitric acid as initiator, graft polymerization of acrylamide onto TKP results TKP-AA.
CE-TKP(Cyanoethyl TKP) is made using acrylonitrile in presence of Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH).
Cationic TKP derivatives are used as efficient flocculants for the treatment of waste water. In order to introduce the quaternary amine groups on the backbone of TKP , N-3-Chloro-2-hydroxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride {CHPTAC} is used.
Oxidized -TKP is used in paper manufacturing. It increases the wet strength of bleached kraft paper by 20%.
Depolymerzied TKP is often used in applications where a low viscosity is desired. The viscosity does not sharply increase with the increase in concentration. Often Pharmaceutical and Food companies would desire such rheological characteristics.

Guar based gels crosslinking is broken when it contacts low-pH fluids such as acid, allowing a high degree of fluid leakoff and thus a better external pack. While fluid-loss control of the crosslinked gel is excellent, the fluid leakoff rate of the Guar gum's gel, once crosslinking is broken, equals that of a sheared and filtered hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) fluid. Combining the guar based linear gel with the acid-prepack treatment yields higher productivity with a high degree of sand control, because perforations are first opened and cleaned of LCM, allowing for a better gravel pack.

TKP complexes ( cross-linking with metal compounds) :-

Solutions of TKP when added with metal hydroxide or alkaline salts forms results in TKP-metals complexes. TKP readily forms complexes with potassium plumbate, barium hydroxide, strontium hydroxide.

The tamarind gum xyloglucan makes a insoluble complex with tannic acid. A instant increase in the viscosity of the TKP aqueous solution is visible upon the addition of di-Sodium Tetra-borate (Na2B2O7).

Cross-linking density is main factor influencing the characteristics of ionic cross linked tamarind xyloglucan. The mechanical strength and swelling power are functions of cross-linking density. As a rule of thumb smaller the molecular size of cross-linker the quicker the cross-linking takes place.

Viscosity of TKP can be controlled via the hydrolysis through acid or enzyme. Addition of Hydrogen peroxide reduces the viscosity of a TKP solution.